The Pentagrams symbol, magick and history
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Many Christian churches today including the Mormon & even their history museum actually have the inverted version of the pentagram. Nature & spirit is something inverted, undermining the elements of nature. Reverse Christianity also champion the inverted upside down pentagram. My earliest recollections of this inverted symbol is in the cult classic movie ‘Metropolis’ which itself was very telling and worth a watch, up there with Orwell’s ‘Animal Farm’
Youtube link: Worth a look inverted pentagram & pentacle on the Pentagram on Mormon LDS Church History Museum Building (Link)
Penta (five points) gram (to draw) is the symbol of a five pointed star. In its accuracy it resembles the golden ratio (or golden section) & pi at work, mathmagic. In old craft work magick is drawn as though water from a well (casting/invoking) or repelled (banishing). Drawn deosil (clockwise or from the right) or widdershin (anticlockwise or from the left) Drawing can be done with the pentagram on the whole or via focus on any of the five elements. So there is actually 12 ways of drawing these elements with a pentagram on the whole or specifically;
Some ideas on drawing include;
The pentacle is also the ultimate symbol among witches as a symbol of their love for nature. The most popular use of the pentagram today is worn as a charm or talisman in a circle. Different materials and gems can further personalize the correspondences one is drawn to as in wood or silver, crystals embedded or engraved etchings. When a pentagram is in a circle it is called a pentacle, pent (penta/5 points) acle (in a circle). The circle is an infinite knot, the universe or even the orouborus. The orouborus circle is represented by a snake or serpentine looking dragon, the cycle of the great year and accountability. But this symbol itself is for another time.
The pentagram symbolism & history
Druids & Celts
The Druid’s pentagram was and is referred to as the ‘solar pentagram’, Oak pentagram or Druid’s foot. The Celts believed that the pentacle was the sign of the Goddess of the Underground, who is the Morgan (Morrigan). The Morrigan is the mother of the Celtic Goddess Brighid & the daughter of the Celtic Goddess Danu & God Dagda. The Morrigan is my main goddess in my priesthood training, but is by no way a replacement of the other deity’s I work with & love.
The Celts saw the pentagram as a representation of fiveness’ in all things, the underpinning of paganism. Fiveness’ appears across Celtic contexts, including ancient Irish tales;
First used by Mesopotamians in approximately 3000 BC, in the Babylonian context. The pentagram directions had an astrological meaning, representing the five planets Jupiter, Mercury, Mars, Saturn, and Venus as the Ishtar ‘Queen of Heaven’. The pentagram was found on pottery pieces that dated back around 3500 BC in ancient Mesopotamia.
There is also evidence that the symbol was used to represent “the underground womb,” from which all are reborn – and had a connection to the pyramid form for the Ancient Egyptians.
In ancient Greece, the symbol was of interest to Pythagoras, who believed that the pentagram was a symbol of perfection. He called it the Pentalpha, because he noted that it was comprised of five geometrically perfect A’s. In his world travels, it was believed that he had influenced other cultures..
It is also said that Greek astronomers noted that the path of the planet Venus forms a pentagram as it orbits the sun when observed from earth, an imperfect pentagram that occurs every eight years.
The Pythagoreans called the pentagram Hygieia (meaning "health"; also the Greek goddess of health, Hygieia), and saw the pentagram to represent mathematical perfection.
“Another use in magick is for hygiene prior to casting a spell or performing a ritual”
The five vertices were also used by the medieval neo-pythagoreans, to represent the five classical elements; Earth, water, air, fire and spirit.
In Gnosticism, the pentagram seems to have first been assigned ties with the element of ‘spirit’. They believed that Pentagram, or ‘Blazing Star’ had the same or similar symbolism as the crescent moon.
The Knights Templar
During the Crusades, a group of military monks formed, called The Knights Templar. Connected to the Temple of Solomon, they incorporated mysticism into architecture in the formations of pentagons & pentagrams. In 1303, King Louis the IX began the Inquisition for he believed they were working against God and saw them as a threat.
Inquisition turned from Christian heretics to Pagan witches
The Pentagram began to gain “evil” connotations, becoming a symbol of a goat’s head (Baphomet) which the Knights of Templar were accused of worshiping. During the time of the Inquisition, attention turned from Christian heretics, to the Pagan Witches who knew herb lore and still followed the Old Religion (Wic/wise craft). Horned gods such as Pan and the pentagram became equated with the Christian Devil, hence the pentagram was deemed evil for the first time in history, and was given the label ‘Witch’s Foot’. From being a symbol of beauty, protection given to folk it had become a symbol of evil in which the wise folk would be burned for.
Secret groups of craftsmen and scholars formed the occult philosophy of Hermeticism, the proto-science of Alchemy, in order to escape the church attention. Geometrical symbols and graphical representations became important as the era of the Renaissance came into being.
The Jews & the seal of Solomon
The inverted pentagram was used by the Jews, sometimes referred to as the seal of Solomon. The inverted pentagram was used as the seal of the City of Jerusalem, as early as the 4th Century BC.
The (non-inverted) pentagram was also in use by the Knights Templar (e.g. on gravestones). In the Legend of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, it is written that he bore a golden shield inscribed with a pentagram. This represented the five knightly virtues – generosity, courtesy, chastity, chivalry and piety.
Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheim (1486-1535) was a German magician, occult writer, astrologer, and alchemist. He popularised the pentagram in the Western European Occult context. He used the pentagram in both the 'regular' and 'inverted' forms.
Leonardo Da Vinci's Vitruvian man
Medieval Christians believed the pentagram to symbolise the five wounds of Christ. The pentagram was believed to protect against witches and demons. Ridiculous since it was our symbol of nature love, beauty & our protection charm used by us witches/druids.
Ancient Christianity used the pentagram, too. It was meant to be symbolic of the five wounds of Christ.
Other Medieval meanings
In Medieval times, the pentagram was known as the ‘Endless Knot/Orouborus’ a symbol of truth and so protection against demons. One would use it for personal protection, or to protect windows and doors. Sometimes, it represented certain seasons, upward for summer and downward for winter.
Tycho Brahe’s Human body & hebrew
In 1582, Tycho Brahe’s work shows a pentagram with the human body imposed and the Hebrew for YHSVH (Jehovah) associated with the elements; another similar image depicts the human body over a pentagram in relationship to the five planets and the moon at the centre point. Later, the pentagram came to be symbolic of the relationship of the head to the four limbs compared to the relationship of the pure concentrated essence of the spirit, to the four traditional elements of matter – earth, water, air and fire (again).
The inverted Pentagram & Mormonism
The inverted pentagram adopted by Mormonism from the 1830s to 1840s.
Albert Pike stated that the Pentagram was synonymous with the Blazing Star of Masonic Lodges.
By the mid-19th Century, a further distinction had developed amongst occultists regarding the pentagram's orientation and usage. With a single point upwards it depicted spirit presiding over the four elements of matter, and was essentially 'good'. The inverted pentagram was considered 'evil' (again)
1855 Victorian Era
Holy Kabbalah, the hemetic order and golden dawn
During the Victorian Era, metaphysical societies were founded based on the Holy Kabbalah. Eliphas Levi was a leader in this movement, in which other groups arose from his lead.
Transcendental magic by Eliphas Levi
In his 1855 book Transcendental Magic, its Doctrine and Ritual, Eliphas Levi wrote: ‘A reversed pentagram, with two points projecting upwards, is a symbol of evil and attracts sinister forces because it overturns the proper order of things and demonstrates the triumph of matter over spirit. It is the goat of lust attacking the heavens with its horns, a sign execrated by initiates’.
The pentagram was first used by the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, a Rosicrucian/Theosophist Freemasonry Offshoot. The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn – whose member, Aleister Crowley, co-created the Thoth Tarot Deck. Refer to the Rosicrucian cross on the back of the thoth deck. Eliphas Levi is credited with turning the gypsy fortune-telling method, Tarot, into set of symbolic images meant for divination. In doing so, he renamed the suit of coins to the suit of Pentacles. During this time, an illustration arose of the old Baphomet symbol from the time of the Inquisition drawn right next to the symbol of an upright pentagram. Because witchcraft was re-emerging, religious fundamentalists related western occultism, the pentagram (more commonly the inverted pentagram) and witchcraft to satanic practices and devil worship.
Wide adoption of banishing & invocation
Usage and application of the pentagram for invocation and banishing rituals was then widely adopted by Thelemists, Neo-Pagans (modern pagans) Theistic Satanists and LaVey Satanists later in the.
In the Freemasonry order, and interlaced pentagram is the symbol used for the Master of the Lodge. Also known as the ‘Endless Knot’ to them. The geometrical properties were used to represent the Masonic emblem of Virtue and Duty. The women’s branch of freemasonry uses the pentagram as the ‘Eastern Star’ with each point commemorating a biblical heroine. Many of the founding fathers of America were Free Masons – evidence of this exists in the states, from the capital’s layout, to the five-pointed stars on the flag and even to the pyramid on the paper bills. In which the inverted pentagram’s points spell out Mason from letters in the Latin words surrounding the pyramid.
Magic, white & black by Franz Hartmann
In his 1895 book Magic, White and Black, Franz Hartmann wrote: "Let us keep the figure of the Five-pointed Star always upright, with the topmost triangle pointing to heaven, for it is the seat of wisdom, and if the figure is reversed, perversion and evil will be the result." The pentagram was adopted by many more neo-pagans, including Wiccans, as a symbol of faith.
Gerald Gardners pentagram and Wicca
In the 1940′s Gerald Gardner adopted the inverted pentagram as a second degree initiation symbol for the neo-pagan rituals of the Wiccan (modern) witchcraft tradition. The upright pentagram in conjunction with the point up triangle symbolized third degree initiation, and the point down triangle represented first degree initiation. The Gardnerian Pentacle was also inscribed on Wiccan altars (as they were in old wic/wise/witch craft. Its points symbolize three aspects of the Goddess and two of the God – and it was also surrounded by seven symbols which represented initiation, the horned God, the moon Goddess and a symbol for mercy and severity, or the kiss and the scourge in this modern take.
Church of Satan
It has also been adopted by the Baha'i faith as its symbol. The inverted pentagram was adopted by Anton LaVey and the Church of Satan in 1966 (with the Eliphas Levi's Baphomet), the downward pointing vertices, and representing opposition to the Trinity, also used by many Theistic Satanists of various types.
Anthony LaVey’s Church of Satan originally started as a renewed practice of worshiping the Egyptian deity Set. They adopted the inverted pentagram after the image of Baphomet for its emblem. The reaction of the Christian Church was to condemn Satanism as evil. Any of the neo-pagan movements became lumped together with it as Devil worship and the pentagram still bears this stigma today.
If you look into law enforcement and legalise, there will be an array of inverted pentagrams also, here’s some from the Australian police
Thank you for reading through this journey, this good, beautiful symbol of nature and protection has been around for a long time. As one now see’s, there is really nothing Semitic about the upright pentagram beyond it’s appropriation.
The pentagram has been appropriated by religions (old wic/wise craft isn’t a religion it is a path – there is no dogmatic universal monotheistic god). In this the appropriation, one should not be deterred from reviving, using their Aryan symbol of the pentagram for the betterment of our kin and the mother earth we love, even if it is to relinquish the harmony’s we once understood and lived with her.
Gypsies are still said to cut an apple in half to reveal two pentagrams. In each point of the pentagram there is an apple seed, called the ‘Star of Knowledge’ representing the mother Goddess Kore. The sabbat Mabon which is the second harvest of the year has the apple as a main symbol in witchcraft. How will you bring back this symbol of ours to pay homage to mother earth and her elements? How can you pass down it’s true meaning & use to ones folk? Imagination is after all the essential ingredient to be a great wic/wise/witch of the craft.
Further areas of study;
February 3rd 2018-02-0
By Druid & Witch, Ravenmor Fox
Also known as Nance or Vegannance.
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© 2018 Bohemefit for Fuerza International. No content or information herein may be used elsewhere on social media, without written permission, yet alone be out of context and or for content on other social media sites.
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